Production planning and control
The research topic is Production Planning and Control (PPC) with special emphases on Performance Measurement (PM). Now a question arises that why this topic?
The answer is simple that in this fast and technological era, only industries having proper planning can survive. Proper planning in all areas for any industry like
Site Selection, Building, Machinery, Transportation, Availability of Materials, Procurement of Materials, Production, Quality Control, Yield, Efficacy, Performance are the basic entities for survival and growth.
If we try to find out the central axes of all such activities, we capable of concluding that
Production Planning & Control and Performance Measurement is the central axes for all such planning processes.
Bird eye view of industrial units in under developed countries shows a picture of less efficiency and yield. They have machinery for production, cheap labour, and availability of cheap raw materials. However, no good yield and efficiency attained. This is only because there is no proper consideration on ProductionPlanning & Control and Performance Measurement
In order to find out the reasons/ factors influencing the processes of ProductionPlanning & Control and Performance Measurement this research work conducted. This research work analyze the various factors, which are crucial for designing the production planning and control check, list out the factors influencing the choice of production process. It also explain the design of production system and manufacturing process, establish the basic reasons and causes that effects of PPC and PM in industrial sector. Describe the benefits, which a small entrepreneur can reap by having properly designed production planning, and control system, search new knowledge to the problem solving. More over it establish the relationship between PPC and PM. The marked effects of technological changes in machinery and the market on the work in industry also considered and find out results and their solution to the problem and identify any recommendations.
The following research will outline the area of study production planning and control with special emphases on performance measurement that carried out for MBA dissertation.
The reason for choosing this topic for research is due to my personal interest in researching further about the issues in production planning and control in industry with special emphases on performance measurement.
The basic research question is factors effecting
production planning and control with reference to performance measurement,while addressing this question number of subsidiary questions arises like
Ø Analyze various factors, which are crucial for designing the production planning and control check
Ø Explain the design of production system and manufacturing process
Ø List out the factors influencing the choice of production process
Ø Describe the benefits, which a small entrepreneur can reap by having properly designed production planning, and control system.
Ø Establish the basic reasons and causes that effects of
PPCand PM in textile sector.
Ø Bridge the gaps of the literature survey that is to find out more about the
PPCand PM in textile sector due to limited availability of theory and findings of fact and figures.
Ø Explore new knowledge to solve the problems and to establish the relationship between
Ø Find out results and their solution to the problem and identify any recommendations if necessary made.
Which will answer in this research work?
Historical background of production planning and control with reference to performance
In the past two centuries, the focus was on operations and production management because of the fact that it plays an important role in a country's economic growth. If we go through the history of PPC with reference to performance measurement, we find out scattered work, started on related topics in late1700 when a book written by Adam Smith in 1776 named Specialization of labour in manufacturing. After words in 1799, Eli Whitney and others presented Interchangeable parts, cost accounting. For more than 30 years there is no significant work can seen until 1832 when Charles Babbage published his work under the title Division of labour by skill.
Again, there is a big gap of 70 years of research work. In 1900 Frederick W. Taylor note down Scientific management time study and work study developed dividing planning and doing of work then again in 1900 Frank B. Gilbreth did work on Motion of study of jobs.
In 1901, Henry L. Gantt put pen to paper on Scheduling techniques for employees, machines jobs in manufacturing.
While F.W. Harris in 1915 did excellent work on Economic, lot sizes for inventory control and Elton Mayo in 1927pen down Human relations a great contribution.
W.A. Shewart for the first time in 1931 forwarded Statistical inference applied to product quality. After him, H.F. Dodge & H.G. Rooming in 1935 forwarded Statistical sampling applied to quality control.
P.M. Blacker and others in 1940 Operations research applications in World War II
John Mauchlly and J.P. Eckert 1946 Digital computer
G.B. Dantzig, Williams & others 1947 Linear programming
A. Charnes, W.W. Cooper & others 1950 Mathematical programming, on-linear and stochastic processes
Sperry Univac 1951 Commercial digital computer: large-scale computations available.
L. Cummings, L. Porter 1960 Organizational behaviour: continued study of people at work
G. Wright 1970 Integrating operations into overall strategy and policy,
W. Skinner J. Orlicky 1970 Computer applications to manufacturing, Scheduling and control, Material requirement planning (MRP)
W.E. Deming and J. Juran 1980 Quality and productivity applications from Japan: CAD-CAM and robotics,
Production managementbecomes the acceptable term from 1930s to 1950s. As F.W. Taylor's works become more widely known, managers developed techniques that focussed on economic efficiency in manufacturing. Workers studied in detail to eliminate wasteful efforts and achieve greater efficiency. At the same time, psychologists, socialists and other communal researchers started to study behaviours in work place or working environment. Here addition, economists, mathematicians, and computer socialists contributed newer, more sophisticated analytical approaches. With the 1970s, emerge two distinct changes in our views. The most obvious of these, reflected in the new name
Operations managementwas a shift in the service and manufacturing sectors of the economy. As service sector became more prominent, the change from ‘production' to ‘operations' emphasized the broadening of our field to service organizations. The second, more suitable change was the beginning of an emphasis on synthesis, rather than just analysis, in management practices.
Production function part of an organization concerned with the transformation of a range of inputs into the required outputs (products) having the necessary quality level. It can define as “the step-by-step conversion of one form of material into another form through chemical or mechanical process to create or enhance the utility of the product to the user”.
Therefore, you can say that production is a value addition process and on every stage of processing, there will be addition in value.
Production can also define as ‘a process by which goods and services are created'. Like manufacturing custom-made products like, cars with a specific capacity, constructing bungalows, some structural fabrication works for selected customers, etc., and manufacturing standardized products like, TV, Busses, Cycle, Radio, etc.
In Production raw material is transformed into semi finished / finished products and there by adds to the worth of usefulness of products, which can be measured by the difference between the value of contributions and value of yields. Activities in production functions are,
Ø Allocation and
Ø Employment of resources
Main intention of production function is to generate the commodities and deals stipulated by customers in the most proficient and reasonable way. Therefore, competent management of the production function is of supreme importance in order to achieve this goal.
In all manufacturing unit production is the basic dynamic force to which other all functions act in response. It is true for inventories as they are necessary for the needs of production.
The decisive objective of production planning and control, like that of all other manufacturing controls, is to add to the profits of the business enterprise.
Precise objectives of production planning and control are to launch routes and plan for work that will make sure the optimum spending of materials, workers, and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in harmony with these plans.
There are four basic phases of control of manufacturing which can easily identified in production planning and control. The sketch for the processing of materials through the plant established by the functions of process planning, loading, and scheduling and the function of dispatching puts the plan into operations that started in accordance with the plant. Real performance then compared to the planned performance, and, when necessary, counteractive actions taken. In some occasions, re-planning needed to ensure the effective utilization of the manufacturing facilities and personnel.
The factors that influence the application of production planning and control to manufacturing are the same as the factors that affect inventory management and control.
Mostly, there are three types of production systems, which refer to,
(a) Continuous production
(b) Job or unit production
(c) Intermittent production
Performance measurementis a requirement to improve performance. Now a question arises that in today's industrial environment how projects can improve their performance, there is a simple answer to it is that they must calculate how they are performing at present and measure how they will perform after any changes. Performance measurement can define as an explanation of something that can be directly measured (e.g. number of items/units per day). The
Performance Indicatoris a draft of something that is designed from performance measures (e.g. % units / day / direct employee) and the
Performance Measurement Datais the assessment or end result for the performance measures and indicators (e.g. units /day = % units / day / direct employee). A Performance Measurement Systemis a complete set of performance measures and indicators extracted in a customary manner according to a set of rules or guidelines cleared in the performance measurement system.
Performance measurement systems usually based on cost and management accounting and such techniques developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century has to meet the needs of manufacturing industries. The concepts of performance measurement fully shaped in the 1930s and since then have been the basis of manufacturing performance measurement systems. In recent years, many changes have taken place in technology and production techniques that resulted in no longer usefulness traditional PM systems (are management accounting based).
Managing techniques used in production plants are changing considerably with time.
Now a new performance measurement systems required by manufacturing ventures should have the following descriptions
Ø Related to the manufacturing strategy
Ø Use non-financial measures
Ø Differ between locations
Ø Changeable over time as needs change
Ø Straightforward and easy to use
Ø Fast feedback to operators and managers
Ø Projected to encourage improvement rather than simply check performance
Performance measures not developed newly but the importance placed on them. Recently excellent manufacturers started to replace their cost based performance measurement systems with ones, which truly drive the production process. As we know that performance, measures can also dictate behaviour and it is very important that they should be suitable for the processes they are measuring.
The new performance measurement systems should go hand in hand with the introduction of new manufacturing techniques open wide truth e.g. previously processes can be re-planed, there must a clear strategy for the venture, and suitable performance measures must be in place to measure the impact of the re-planed process. In short, strategy and new performance measures are fundamentals to Business Process Re-planning.
Aims of this researchstudy summarised as
To analyze various factors, which are crucial for designing the production planning and control check? and to list out the factors influencing the choice of production process. Moreover, to explain the design of production system and manufacturing process and to establish the basic reasons and causes that effects of
PPCand PM in textile sector. It also describe the benefits, which a small entrepreneur can reap by having properly designed production planning, and control system and search new knowledge to the problem solving and to establish the relationship between PPC and PM.
Fernandes et al. (
July 2009)made a attempt toidentify production planning and control top authors.
The main goal of their article is to identify the top production planning and control (PPC) authors by means of a survey on PPC researchers. The 10 top PPC authors were identified, as well as their influence (direct, indirect, or concerning some specific PPC problem) and impact (in theory or in an industry; PPC teaching or research) on the PPC area.
The main contributions of this article are as follows:
1) To identify (among a great number of books regarding PPC) the books that has more influence on the PPC area
2) To guide the study of PPC by means of presenting the main books and authors of PPC
3) To show the most valuable work of the PPC top authors, initiating a process of determining who the PPC gurus are.
Gonzalez, et al. (
July 2008)investigated the relationship between planning reliability and project performance and found out that variability is a well-known problem in construction projects which leads to the general deterioration of project performance. In this paper, the authors report on a detailed research analyzing this relationship during the construction phase of a home building project at activity and project levels. By doing so, two indexes proposed
i. An activity planning reliability index called the process reliability index (PRI) &
ii. A project aggregate labor productivity index, called the project productivity index (PPI).
Statistical analyses using the proposed indexes conducted showing positive and strong relationships between planning reliability and performance at activity and project levels. The research findings provide the guidelines of a preliminary methodology to forecast the impacts of planning reliability over project performance when lean production methodologies are applied in project planning and control.
Orsoni et al. (
July 2007)tried to explain remote scheduling of production activities they said that remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production. This paper also proposes design guidelines and performance measures against which production managers can evaluate and improve their solutions.
Lima, R. M. et al. (
October 2006)did some work on distributed production planning and control agent-based system and said that remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions, highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production.
Stevenson, Mark (
Feb2006)conducted research on refining a Workload Control (WLC) concept to improve the applicability of the approach to the shop characteristics found in practice. This is a two-stage process leading to significant conceptual refinements to a key WLC methodology. The first stage focuses on the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a WLC concept designed for Make-To-Order (MTO) companies. Refinements made include changes to the backwards scheduling procedure and the way in which jobs are released onto the shop floor. The second stage focuses on the process of implementation. Using a case study of a MTO company, the paper describes the strategy taken to overcome a number of prerequisites to the successful implementation of a Production Planning and Control (PPC) concept. Issues addressed include grouping machines and determining capacities. This case study adds to the available literature by looking specifically at implementing WLC from the customer enquiry stage, while the case study experience also provides further refinements to the WLC concept.
Wiendahl et al. (
Oct 2005)Investigated Stumbling blocks of PPC they found out that manufacturing companies often complain about the difficulties they face in meeting their customers logistic requirements. Many blame the perceived inadequacies of their production planning and control (PPC) software for their performance deficits. PPC software is just one of six configuration aspects of the entire PPC system. The authors argue that the configuration of the PPC aspects objectives, processes, objects, functions, responsibilities and tools has carried out methodically and consistently in order for the PPC system to function properly. The analysis of examples of so-called `stumbling blocks' of PPC, inadequate configurations of one or several of the aspects supports this claim. There investigation closes with the proposal of a checklist that the authors suggest as a first approach to ensure the consistent configuration of PPC systems.
M. Stevenson et al. (
March 2005)presented a review of production planning and control. The paper reviews classic approaches to Production Planning and Control (PPC) such as Kanban, Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) and Theory of Constrains (TOC) and elaborates upon the emergence of techniques such as Workload Control (WLC), Constant Work In Process (CONWIP), Paired cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization (POLCA) and web- or e-based Supply Chain Management (SCM) solutions. A critical assessment of the approaches from the point of view of various sectors of the Make-To-Order (MTO) Industry presented. The paper considers factors such as the importance of the customer enquiry stage company size degree of customization and shop floor configuration and shows them to play a large role in the applicability of planning and control concepts. The paper heightens the awareness of researchers and practitioners to the PPC options, aids managerial system selection decision-making, and highlights the importance of a clear implementation strategy. WLC emerges as the most effective Job Shop solution; whilst for other configurations there are several alternatives depending on individual company characteristics and objectives. The paper outlines key areas for future research, including the need for empirical research into the use of Workload Control in small and medium sized MTO companies.
Zülch G.,Fischer J. (
March 2003)enumerated that during the realization of the CAESAR planning games, which has been supported by the European Leonardo da Vinci Programmed the use of modular planning games within a global scenario has shown to be very effective in concisely relaying educational content from the area of production management. In particular the close-to-reality situations have proven time and again to be highly motivating for seminar participants. In order to improve the transferability of acquired knowledge into practice the IFAB-Institute of Human and Industrial Engineering of the University of Karlsruhe has further developed the INSIGHTS-PPC planning game for production planning and control in such a way that the planning tasks to be tackled are set in direct relation to market similar repercussions. This realized in a new market share model. The market share model explained, paying particular attention to the practical consequences, which come along with the implementation of such a model. Despite the potential of the developed market share model and the positive feedback from seminar participants there is a risk of the participants being diverted from the intended educational content, that of production logistic fundamentals and techniques, and of them perceiving the focus of the seminar as a relaying of market mechanisms.
Starbek M. &Grum J. (
December 2000)found out, there is much computer-aided production planning and control (PPC) systems available on the market which can provide a solution to the complex task of production planning and control. However, the question remains, how can a company find an optimal system from the vast amount of available systems?
Olhager J. &Wikner J. (
April 2000)Worked on Production planning and control tools,
there are numerous tools available to be used for production planning and control purposes. The number of tools is ever increasing, and so are the levels of sophistication as well as complexity. For the specific manufacturing firm, the task of selecting the most appropriate set of tools is not trivial. However, in recent years, the understanding of the relationship between tools and manufacturing environments for which they are suitable has increased. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of production planning and control tools available today, as well as new trends, issues and ideas.
Wiendahl et al. (
December 1999)touched a general approach to disassembly planning and control and their findings are closing product and material cycles have emerged as a paradigm for industry in the 21st century, and are directed towards an economical and responsible use of our limited resources. Disassembly plays a key role in recycling. It enables the recovery of functioning components for re-use of pure materials for re-utilization and the separation of harmful substances. Major challenges presented by the enormous variety of products disassembled, by uncertainty as to quantity and by their unknown properties. An appropriate planning and control of disassembly processes is essential for an economic disassembly. Based on an investigation of the suitability of common production planning and control (PPC) methods for disassembly, a specific disassembly planning and control concept (DPC) outlined.
Moscoso P. G et al. (
November 1999)investigated on modeling framework for complementary design of production planning and control systems and said in a business era characterized by a dazzling rate of change, the improvement of production planning and control begins to be a main objective for manufacturing industries. This paper postulates four main statements to be considered for the design of production plans and control systems (PPC-systems) comprising human and technical sub-systems. The first is that production models required for the design of PPC-systems (i.e. design models) cannot be identical to production models required for planning and control of production systems (i.e. regulatory models). The design of PPC-systems must primarily focus on the quality of interaction between the regulatory models. This insight supports the second statement, which postulates that the design of PPC-systems requires a complementary design approach. Complementary design means to take explicitly into account that human and technical sub-systems- based on the differences in strengths and weaknesses of both- can achieve through their interaction a new quality, possible neither to human nor technical sub-systems alone. The third statement is that a complementary design of PPC-systems will only be possible if a fundamental change of mind from a static to a dynamic as well as from a technical to a socio-technical perception (i.e. a complete perception) of production systems takes place. Without a complete perception of production systems, designed PPC-systems will not be sufficiently reliable, maintainable and flexible, will be difficult to comprehend, and their elements will not be re-usable for further applications. The fourth statement is that the integral support of the design process requires a dual modeling framework comprising a meta- and an object-model. Considering these fundamental insights that were confirmed by a practical case study, a dual modeling framework for the design of PPC-systems which incorporates criteria for complementary design is outlined.
Tatsiopoulos I. P. &Mekras N.D.
(July 1999)tried to find out an expert system for the selection of production planning and control software packages and presents a rule-based expert system that can be used for the selection of a suitable production planning and control (PPC) software package to be applied in a manufacturing firm. A production system's typology and a compact PPC software reference model are included in the knowledge base, which created. The inferences made based on rules that relate a semantic network of PPC software features with a semantic network of production systems' attributes. The results given by the expert system include the module architecture and the set of features of the PPC software package, which are applicable in a certain manufacturing setting.
Wiendahl H-P. &Breithaupt J-W. (
June 1999)Worked on modeling and controlling the dynamics of production systems and infrared that nowadays, in a fast-changing production environment, companies have to adapt their production structures rapidly. Therefore new methods for production planning and control (PPC) are required that consider these dynamic changes. Today's PPC systems mainly based on static models now a dynamic production model has been developed applying methods of control theory. Using the funnel model and the theory of the logistic operating curve, a continuous model of a single production system developed. For the control task, backlogs as well as a work-in-process (wip) controller developed. The controllers interact to adjust the capacity and input rate of the work system to eliminate the backlog as soon as possible and to set the wip to a defined level. Simulation experiments confirm that this concept ensures the synchronization of capacity and work. In an ongoing research project, an extended model for several work systems connected via the material flow designed, which based on the elementary one. A suggestion to integrate the strategy into PPC on the planning level already been generated. The objective of this approach is to develop the present open-loop control realized in PPC into a closed-loop control with defined control and reference variables.
Gaalman G.J.C. &Suresh N.C.
(February 1999)conducted research work towards an Integration of Process Planning and Production Planning and Control for Flexible Manufacturing Systems and this introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effectively utilized by integrating process planning and PPC functions. The various types of flexibility to be planned and provided for in process planning and manufacturing are summarized in the article, as well as emerging conceptual frameworks for integration, along with their implementation requirements and problems. Distinctive elements that differentiate these frameworks, such as the extent of integration of process planning and PPC activities, number of alternative process plans, and the time at which numerical control programs are generated, are discussed, followed by a brief summary of the articles compiled for this special.
Luczak H. Et al. (
July 1998)analyzed PPC-systems: re-engineering or replacement? and concluded that the growing number of production enterprises that use software systems to support the production planning and control (PPC-systems) and the limited life-time of these systems imply that many enterprises have to decide whether or not an existing PPC-system is worthwhile reengineering. The factors that have an impact on this decision are non-quantifiable.
Porter, J.K. et al. (
1996)discussed Production planning and control system developments in Germany and briefly explained the impact of MRP on UK manufacturing industry in the context of the next generation of developments. Draws a contrast with production planning and control systems in Germany, which derive shop floor control through different architecture of business control systems. Presents the state of these developments in Germany as analyzed by a leading academic institution (the FIR at Aachen University of Technology). Compares this with UK developments, as seen by the Liverpool short-term scheduling group, which recently has analyzed production planning/ scheduling practice in a range of different companies across various industry types.
Hermann Kühnle et al. (
1994)engaged their minds in Integration of CAPP and PPC, they introduces concepts for the integration of Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Production Planning and Control (PPC). Characterizes the current situation regarding integration by a one-way communication from CAPP to PPC, since a revised link not envisaged. Introduces a new approach to full integration by the extension of functions within both systems' components as well as integration of both data and information technology.
The basic Research Question is production planning and control with reference to performance measurement. To address all such questions the methodology used is Qualitative and I make use of Quantitative methods to analyse the statistical data, which to be collected during research work.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH In Qualitativeapproach of investigations, we use words to describe the outcomes of any research.
Qualitative research has its deep roots in social science and is more concerned with understanding why people behave as they do, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, fears, etc.
Qualitative research allows the subjects studied to give much comfortable answers to questions put to them by the researcher, and may give valuable insights, which might missed by any other method. It also provide valuable information to certain research questions in its own right but there is a strong case for using it to complement quantitative research methods.
WHY QUALITATIVE METHOD OF RESEARCH
Because of the fact that
Ø The research question clearly identified
Ø The setting in which the research took place clearly described
Ø If sampling undertaken, the sampling methods described
Ø The research worker address the issues of subjectivity and data collected
Ø There are methods to test the validity of the results of the research used
Ø The results of the research can be kept separate from the conclusions drawn by the research workers
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
The methods used in qualitative research are
4. Written material
10. Category and concept formation
11. Theory generation
It explore the natural scene, the qualitative researcher should be as modest as possible. Therefore, neither observer presence nor methods upset the situation. That is why contributor observation is one of the preferred approaches in qualitative research methods.
Participant observationhas very vital role as it blends in with natural activity.
By it observer can have right of entry to
Ø Same people
Ø Same places and
Ø Same events
Official papers relevant to the role including private reports and records also considered.
An observer can also make use of motorized aids like tape recorders and cameras. Therefore, observer can have first-hand experience of his role and understanding of it this will valuable contribution to the life of the organization.
The strengths of systematic observation can summarised as
Ø Relatively free of observer bias
Ø Reliability can be strong
Ø Generalise-ability once an observer devised his instrument, large samples can be covered
Ø No hanging around or Muddling through
ØProvides a structure for the research topic
An immense amount of qualitative matter comes from talking with people. Either by Formal interviews or Casual conversations material can be collected. It is necessary for the researcher to
Ø Develop understanding with interviewees and win their confidence.
Ø Be inconspicuous in order not to impose own influence on the respondent.
Unstructured interview is the best technique for it.
Researchers use number of techniques in conversation to aid clarity, depth, and validity. Like
Ø Check on apparent contradictions
Ø Search for opinions
Ø Ask for clarification
Ø Ask for explanations, pose alternatives
Ø Seek comparisons
Ø Pursue the logic of an argument
Ø Ask for further information
Ø Aim for comprehensiveness
Ø Put things in a different way
Ø Express incredulity or astonishment
Ø Summarise occasionally and ask for corroboration
Ø Ask hypothetical questions
Ø Play devil's advocate
Researcher should be active listener, which shows the interviewee that close attention paid to what they say. He / She should keep the candidate focused on the subject as modestly as possible. Formal interviews or Casual interview might used in the same research work.
Sampling defined as the process of selecting units such as people, institutes from a population of interest so that when we study the sample we may justly simplify our results reverse to the population from which it selected. The important terminologies and methods in sampling summarised as
The population you would like to generalize called as theoretical population and the population, which will be accessible to you called as accessible population.
Sampling frame defined as recording of the accessible population from which you will describe your sample and sample is the group of people /industry / organization, which you select for your research.
Analyzing across the responses that we get form our whole sample termed asstatistic. Measuring of entire population/industry/organization and calculating a value akin to a mean or average termed as parameter of the population/industry/organization. Sampling distribution defined as the “distribution of unlimited number of specimens of the same size as the specimen in your study”
Standard deviation of in sampling distribution tells us how different samples distributed and in statistics it is consigned as the standard error while in sampling perspective, the standard error termed as sampling error.
Representative or Naturalistic sampling is enviable where qualitative researcher is seeking to generalise about general issues. It includes
Ø Times and
Representative sampling cannot always be attained in qualitative research because of the fact that
a) Initially largely investigative nature of the research
b) Inconvenience of negotiating contact
c) All the work and problems of assembling and dispensing data carried out by only one individual.
Written Documentsare a helpful source of data in qualitative research but treated with care.
The most commonly used are official, personal, and questionnaires like documents including
Ø Record registers
Ø Proceedings of meetings
Ø Scheduling papers
Ø Message plans
These also includes
Ø Confidential documents
Ø Newspapers and journals
Ø Office files and statistics
Ø Institutional notice boards
Ø Official inscription
Ø Text books
Ø Work cards
All these documents play a vital role during any qualitative research
In personal documents
Creative writing exercises
Personal letters and
Notes are included
These can provide background and point of views to researcher.
In research that I have been associated with I have found out a huge amount of such documents.
Diaries often used in qualitative research and they are natural as these contain personal since, understanding of issues and are demonstrate-able. While using these documents the observer should know the foundation and motivation, on which he / she compiled. These are strong sources of information's so these used in conjunction with other methods.
The questionnaires are not between the most important methods in qualitative research. As they commonly need people to respond to a motivation and so they not act naturally.
It is a sequence of questions raised to individual to get information about an issue of concern useful statistically. Like other research tools
questionnaireis a tool consisting of a chain of questions and actions for gathering information from answerers. These formulated for analysis of the responses in statistical way.
Question types are a number of questions, and answerer has to answer in a set format and they may be open-ended and closed-ended question
Open-ended question asks the respondent formulate his / her own answer, while in
Closed-ended question respondent pick an answer from the given options.
Questions flow is logical and for the best response rates, my questions start from the less sensitive to most sensitive. More over factual, behavioral, general and specific questions addressed.
For questionnaire construction the basic rules adopted are
· Make use of statements where persons that have different view s or peculiarities will give different answers
· You are concerned in only one aspect of the hypothesis per item
· Use optimistic declarations and avoid negatives or double negatives
· About the respondent no assumptions made
· Comprehensible and clear wording used
· Correct language is used.
In accordance with the features of qualitative research it kept in mind that the questionnaires should contain
· The conditions in which answers are being given
· The need for making sure, equilibriums, additions and alterations
VALIDITY & RELIABILITY
The word validity means legitimacy and it depends on the methodological proficiencies used, compassion, and training of the observer. It involves
Ø Systematic and thorough observation
Ø Skilful interviewing and content analysis
Then production of useful and realistic qualitative assessment of data during
Ø Interviewing and
Ø Content analysis
It requires subject knowledge, training, practice, and hard work. In real life, some qualitative researchers do not focus about validity, as it commonly understood. They prefer to aim for understanding but whichever approach they adopt, validity in qualitative research commonly depends upon:
Ø If the researchertakes
modest measures, less he / she disturbs the scene and result deeper dissemination of the research. The most demonstration of it might claim to be genuine.
Ø To some extant
respondent Validationnecessary but it is not always be suitable or desirable.
This type of research work aimed to test a theory and researcher works judgmentally to orient outcomes. On the other hand, related with the sense of the phenomenon.
The reliability principle for qualitative research centred on identifying and documenting characteristics as prototypes, ideas, world visions, and any other phenomena under study in related or different human backgrounds.
It revolves around the strains between covert and open research and between the right to know and right to privacy. Researcher often likened to spying or observer of scandalous events.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ASSESSED
It is strong for the attention to feature,
Ø The ability to take on both verbal and non-verbal behaviours,
Ø To find out meanings, expose the delicacy and complexity of cases or issues,
Ø Sketching perceptions and expressing feelings and experiences,
Ø Covering processes and natural environments,
Ø Actions are persuaded within situations and time,
Ø Theory created from the observed data, and subsequently there is proximity of fix between theory and data.
In it, analysis frequently starts at the same time at data collection to give a sense to the data.
Analysis begins immediately with
primary analysisand after more data, collection in contact with primary analysis. At second stage researcher makes
category and conceptand then at third stage called
generate a theory
In primary analysis, I recorded interview, made field notes of observation, and compiled them. By it, I assembled documents.
I continuously examined the
data, highlighted certain points in the text, written comments in the margins. As I know that, the qualitative data begin as raw and provides descriptive information about projects and people in projects.
Visit the different projects to make first-hand observations of project activities by absorbing personally in those activities as a contributor observer and talks with other staff about their incidents and observations, and evidences.
The data obtained from interviews, observations and documents ordered as
Ø Major idea
Ø Category and
Ø Case example in the course of satisfied analysis
During analysis of data it involved the non-numerical organisation of data into determine
Ø Qualities found in field note
Ø Open-ended questionnaire
Ø Case study
In primary analysis interview texts are completed, subject area notes of observation gathered, documents collected together and researcher constantly inspects the information's, possibly underline assured points in the text. He / she may write comments in the margins of notes or documents.
Category and concept
Category and concept formation defined as the stage when he / she (researcher) arrive at a point where they have to arrange data in some kind of systematic way, ordered form for analytic purposes. Accepted method of doing this is in the course of recognizing main divisions in the data under which it included.
Then establishment of data using divisions and sub divisions and each them graphically explained (Observations, Notes, Recorded dialogue and Interaction).
We also need a complete view up to the bottom of issue/topic, if we require to form / create a theory from it.
The generation of theory
It is investigative tool for
Making forecasts about a given issue topic
Theories reveal your thoughts in ordinary expression, but always created in such a way that their wide-ranging form is identical to a as articulated in the conventional dialect.
Development of theory may show the way back into more data collection as one try something out which fills in areas that necessitate more knowledge.
After development of a theory, one should carry on comparative analysis. In order to confirm
Ø Test an thought
Ø Expose the idiosyncratic elements of a category
Ø Set up general principals within a group
We make use of comparisons all the time. After identification of important results categories and concepts are developed. These are essential components of theory building up.
During comparative analysis literature is also an important part of theory improvement and the major method of doing comparisons outsidethe study.
Time also considered as another important factor in it. In depth, involvement results in longer association and wider field of contacts and knowledge.
As part of my research, I considered particular characteristics (variables) and attempted a hard efforts to demonstrate interesting facts that how they dispersed within Production Planning and Control. These variables measured for the purpose of quantitative analysis. Using the data that I have collected, I make use of
In the research work variables are displayed graphically by tables, bar /pie charts. I need only this part of statistics to make deductions from my research data. As we know the fact that uni-variant (one variable) analysis are descriptive. Descriptive statistics usually used to explain a significant relationship between two variables (bi-variant data) or more variables (multi-variant).
Deducingsignificant generalise able relationships between variables. The tests employed designed to find,
Continuous data variant
Mean:It defined as average of a set of numbers, and it is a measure of the central location.
Standard deviation:It defined as the square root of the variance,
Variancedefined as a measure of distribution of a set of data calculated,
s= ∑ (x - mean)
Medianis the middle or central number of a data set.
Quartilesdefined assplitting and allocation of values into four equal parts and the three equivalent values of the variable represented by q1, q2, and q3
Range explained asa measure of distribution equal to the difference between the biggest and smallest value.
It can be defined as “if an experiment has n equally likely outcomes and q of them is the event E, then the probability of the event E, P (E)”,
P (E) =q/n
Methodological checklist for this qualitative research work is
Ø The research question clearly identified
Ø The setting in which the research took place clearly described
Ø The sampling methods described
Ø The research worker address the issues of subjectivity and data collection
Ø Methods to test the validity of the results of the research used
Any steps taken to increase the reliability of the information collected, for example, by repeating the information collection with another research worker.
The results of the research kept separate from the conclusions drawn by the research workers.
Quantitative methods are appropriate as a supplement to the qualitative methods, so they are also used.