Reward strategy for call centre
The Purpose of this report is formulating the Bonus and Reward strategies and other Friendly related Policies which can reduce the attrition rate, and thereby retain employees.
The stimulus of the report was the fact that the Reward process was fragmented and has been experiencing high staff turnover.
Main objectives of the study
- Understanding the Reward Strategy.
- Design appropriate reward system, Performance management measures and other friendly related policies.
The project was designed to document the current practices related to reward and Pay prospects and to identify procedures to improve upon those practices and, in particular, to evaluate similar, but perhaps more effective, practices that can be carried out to reduce the turn over, and be in line with that of competitors.
v Increase in pay according to the market standards
v Combination of Individual based and team based bonus scheme should be paid out on Annual basis instead of quarterly
v Introduction to friendly policies like flexibility in working shifts, Private Health Insurance, Crèche facilities, Maternity and paternity benefits, Car Allowance, Holiday benefits etc.
v Personality development programmes, career plans, job sharing through intranet should be chalked out which would enable employees to identify their own skills and progress accordingly
Case Study Information:
Background Information about the Company: Chalmers
Product: Direct Insurance
Chalmers is a fast growing insurance company based in slough in southern England with 800 staff. Founded in 1990, operates call centre services on a 24/7 basis, which is centred on customers with a flexible and quick solutions to problems. There is a commitment to customers to deal with sale, claim or a complaint with in a 5 day period.
Employees work in teams with a team leader responsible for 15 to 25 employees. Staffs are recruited on permanent and part time basis. Around half the staffs is recruited on permanent who works for 35 hours and the remaining staff would work from 8 to 25 hours.
Salary and Bonus Structure:
Call centre operatives are given around the basic salary of £14,000 along with individual bonus. Bonus would be ranging from 0 - £8,000 pounds with an average of £1300.
Bonuses are paid on three monthly bases and it depends on the number of calls taken and the quality of a good customer service.
Current Scenario in call centres in UK and its trends:
The call centre sector is fast approaching the point where it accounts for over 2% of the working population in the UK (Labour Force Survey 2001). From huge sales-oriented centres to banking service centres via emergency information lines, call centres are present in almost every sector of the economy and fulfil a huge variety of functions. According to the recent survey conducted by IDS has published an annual report on Call centres in UK. The report emphasizes on the industry, and the details of the salaries of an average call centre operative. According to the report there are around 8, 67,000 people in UK who are employed in the call centre industry in the year 2003, which has signified that there is a tremendous increase in this sector when compared to the year 1998. This is because of the expansion and introduction to new sectors like telecom and public services. [Source: Author: Dave Watson/ Call centre pay - Briefing no: 71/ http://www.unison-scotland.org.uk/callcentres/callcentrepay.html]
Analysis of the Pay:
The average salary that is been paid out to the call centre operative ranges from £14,820 and the maximum is£16,000. The sectors that were covered retail, public, telecom and utilities sectors. So therefore the pay percentage has increased from 7.7% to 3% basic pay deal. It is a very competitive environment, and like other businesses, a highly motivated and competent workforce is an asset for call centres which can in turn lead to optimum business performance.
[Source: Philip Thornton/ Economies Development/ Tuesday 21st October 2003/ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/call-centres-push-up-pay-rates-in-drive-to-lure-recruits-584162.html]
Before explaining further we need to understand about what is reward management strategy
Introduction to Reward Management Strategy
Reward management system is the formation and implementation of reward strategies which aim to reward the employees. It can be defined as an "attitude of mind - a belief in the need to plan ahead and make the plans happen" [Source: Michael Armstrong and Brown]
They define an approach an organization takes to dealing with reward, reward policies, and provide guidelines for the actions contained in the reward strategy. The main aim of the reward system is to motivate and retain employees. Reward strategy provides a direction and links business and its people with reward policies and there by communicate and explains these practices which increase the likelihood of the organization business goals.
There are two types of reward i.e. direct Rewards: which is about money payments in the form of basic pay, bonus, incentives etc. Indirect rewards: includes pensions, paid holidays and insurances.
Every organization has its own reward system. The management would see to that the actions and behaviours are consistent with the values and vision set by the company and ensure the affordability of the reward system is sustainable and to bring in transparency so that the reward package is fully understood and valued. The success of any reward strategy would highly depend on appropriate performance measures, the cost effective delivery of reward and ensure that there is consistency in process. [Source: Michael Armstrong, 2nd Edition]
Analysis about current situation in the Company:
- Recruitment, Retention and Turnover: This is not an unusual problem which is not only faced by the company chalmers but also majority of the call centres. According to the Survey report by IDS about 36% of the organizations had problems with recruiting full time staff, and at the same time 80% of the organizations also said that it is very difficult to retain employees. Lack of motivation and disengaged staff are unlikely to provide the required quality levels. This signifies that call centres are experiencing high turnover across the industry. It is crucial for employers to retain employees as turnover has got negative implication on business in terms of cost. It takes several months for a new member of staff to match the performance level of experienced employees. This will impact on profitability and customer experience. We must recognise the significance of experienced employees and the value they bring in to the company. Some of the reasons which can be cited are because of the salary which is paid low when compared to the market standards, secondly is lack of promotional opportunities or rather career progression.
- Dissatisfaction with Bonus Schemes: The staffs at Chalmers are showing a high level of dissatisfaction with the current bonus scheme and are unhappy that it is not being run equitably. These bonuses range from zero to £8000, and also the average amount paid out to the employees is £1300. It is because of the assessment is based on the number of calls made by the operator and the quality of service provided to customers. The Present bonus scheme is a three monthly based payment scheme. This is perceived to be low when compared to market standards. Incentive schemes must not be looked as an expense rather always encourages higher levels of staff performance. Rewards usually relate to achievement of certain goals be it personal or team or a combination of all. The underlying fact for bonus schemes is to improve business performance. Bonus scheme can be effective only when it is fair, consistent, affordable, transparent and appropriate to the business and the jobs that they relate to in its application and execution.
- Lack of Performance Management Measures: Employees are assets to any organization when it comes to achieve the desired goals set by the management. Performance management is an integrated process which delivers success to the organization, helping employees by giving them scope to improve and develop their skills both from individual and team perspective. Chalmer company does not have enough performance management measures which is evident that the employees are not happy and do not have a room for them to explain their concerns to the management. This reduces employee's morale, confidence in expressing out themselves, lack of motivation etc. Also it would hamper the relationship between the management and the employee's in the long run and in turn would have negative impact in terms quality and output. Performance management should be designed in a way to motivate people and act as a key component for the total reward process. It should provide reward in the form of recognition, an opportunity to develop skills and has to be guidance for the career paths. [Source: Michael Armstrong, 2nd Edition, Pg - 392]
- Towards Recruitment and Retention: Chalmer Company will have to carefully design a recruitment strategy which can be implemented so that the company does not face any kind of difficulty in the mere future. The company had to initiate a far-reaching organizational-change programme to transform the working environment. It also should introduced a raft of new initiatives and practices to help turn the company around, such as a new recruitment procedure, a new induction programme, a flexible benefits offering, flexible working and a coaching programme. These are some of the initiatives which can reduce solve the recruitment problem and can also retain employees to the greater extent.
ü Primary thing is Chalmers has to match its pay with that of current market standards, by comparing them with that of competitors. This can be done by using salary surveys, identifying the key indicators and the reasons as to why the employees are leaving to other organizations. Also we can get this information by scrutinizing the local advertisements in the news papers, Job boards etc.
According to one of the survey report it stated that an average call centre operator gets around £14,820 and the maximum £16,000, which are given by other competitors which is not with the case of Chalmers company as it pays around £14,000. So therefore it has increase or modifies its pay structure to £14,820 in order to retain employees, as this is one of the primary reasons. We need to always remember that pay is the key determinant by the potential applicants. [Source: Philip Thornton/ Economies Development]
ü Consider internal staff on part time basis: it has to do by targeting their internal staffs who are employed on the part time basis. Although they work on part time basis, they have fully fledged knowledge about the intricacies and how business would run. And these staff can also train the new staff who are being recruited. So it would be very easy for the organization to extend their contract of employment which would save lot of time and money because there would be lot of efforts involved in terms of training and in recruiting the trained staff, which in turn is beneficial to the organization.
ü Career Progression: Sometimes employees leave the organizations because they are not happy with the job; especially call centre jobs are routine in nature. Keeping that in mind Chalmers has to keep the consistency in the Job Profile. Ensure that techniques like Job Rotation, Enrichment and enlargement are used. We need to listen to what the employees wants and help them to develop their careers. Introducing Personality development proramme i.e. PDP, which will help us to identify what the employees wants to progress in his or her career. Create a provision of job sharing or rather opportunities to apply for the next level through intranet where employees will have a chance to apply and think of their own progress in career. Often give them more tasks or rotate employees into different roles. This gives them a feeling of flexibility and can do any job with ease. Ongoing feedback and performance appraisal would be a strong motivation tool to let employees know as to how they are doing. This will let them develop and what areas they need to improve on.
ü Employee Referral Scheme: Another technique which is used in recruitment and selection method is the Employee referral Program. This is one of the effective means of attracting applicants without incurring costs to agencies and for advertisements. New recruits who are referred by the existing employee come with realistic expectations and provide a better culture fit. Under employee referral program offer cash incentive schemes. These cash incentives would be paid out once the candidate gets selected in the recruitment process and remains in the company for at least 3 months during his probation period tenure. Create a separate bonus scheme for this to give a kind of motivation for our employees. For Example:
Customer Service Executives
ü Internal Promotions: About half of the employees are recruited on permanent and the rest 25% are employed on temporary basis. So the company can internally promote the old employees who are capable of taking new challenges and new roles i.e. supervisory level, and at the same time workers who are employed on temporary basis can occupy the vacant position too.
ü Contacting Previous employees: At the same point in time we need to contact the employees who left the organization since the old employees are skilled and trained no separate training cost is involved. Although this would be an expensive affair of contacting them again but still the organization can try in using this.
ü External recruitment: which plays a vital role; we need to understand what the job requirements are. For a call centre role some of the important attributes that the candidate should have are as follows:
- Enthusiasm or High Energy levels: This would relate to behaviour and attitude
- Communication: Whether they are able to convey the information
- Thinking : ability to record information while taking calls
These are some of the competencies that the organization has to focus on while selecting the candidate Always remember that a right person in right place is a key factor which drives the recruitment strategy. It is very important that we need to manage people's expectations and that they have all the information to make a realistic decision about the job. Also we need to keep in mind that recruitment is a two way process.
ü Bond of Agreement: The newly recruited workers must sign a bond for the period of 6 months tenure agreement. This would reduce the attrition to the greater extent. New Recruits have to be clearly explained about the job profile, working hours and all other related issues. They should also be explained why there is an agreement and should be made aware of the consequences if broken.
ü Work Environment and Flexibility in Working, other friendly policies: Employees must not be pressured to work beyond their ability and also they should be provided with flexi -shift pattern which would be comfortable for them to work. Allowing employees to swap their shift with other employees when required. Proper breaks intervals have to be decided between works. Work life balance is a key if we are going to be in a position to attract and retain different people and we need to give that flexibility and get adapted to the changing conditions. Employees should be able to choose their working hours and vary their working hours if their personal circumstances change according the situation. Some of the other friendly policies like Private medical cover, Holidays plans, Family leave and child care, Company car and allowance.
Evidence: Abbey National bank has followed this concept of introducing work life balance and friendly policies in order to reduce staff turnover. It has offered job shares, career breaks, Voluntary reduced hours, maternity leave etc. [Source: IDS 2001, IRS 2004]
ü Training: Training and development programmes seek to maintain current job performance. The need for the training analysis can be determined depending on the job requirements, performance and other surveys has to be conducted, so that new activities can be implemented which can improve the performance of the workers. Such activities can be On the Job Training and Off the Job Training. Induction and training should be on a daily basis.
Evidence: These strategies were adopted in call centre companies like William hill, Lloyds bank, According to the IRS Employment review, by following the above related strategies the attrition was reduced to 55 %. [Source: IRS Employment Review/ Issue: 839/ Date: 20/01/2006/ Publisher: IRS/ http://www.xperthr.co.uk/article/60684/recruitment-and-retention-in-call-and-contact-centres.aspx]
- Bonus Schemes and Reward strategies: Bonuses is one of the tools which are closely with the performance targets and the quality of the customer service. In order to retain employees bonus is one of the technique and can be very effective which is taken into consideration by most of the organizations. Different types of Bonus are used by different organizations as part of their reward packages. According to CIPD 2009, survey the most common forms of Bonus scheme that are used by most of the organizations are as follows:
* Individual Bonus - 61%
* Team Based Bonus - 23%
* Combination of individual and team based - 41%
* Gain sharing 3%
Cash based bonus is the most common type which 70% of the organizations use. According to the CIPD survey in 2009, the maximum bonus that is earned by technical and Professional people category is 12% of the annual salary which is surveyed according to sector and occupation in the current market industry. So therefore the company has to raise it to those standards. Although Chalmer runs on individual based bonus scheme which is distributed on the quarterly basis, it has to change by using a combination strategy i.e. individual and team based bonus scheme on annual basis. Practically two - thirds of the organizations make bonus payments on an annual basis. The benefits of using the bonus scheme on the annual basis: scope of making a significant lump sum amount that can stand out of the basic pay and the interest in a bonus scheme that measures performance over a long period can be kept by communicating the progress on the regular basis.
Distribution of Bonus: Most of the companies link their bonus with that of individual performance and is paid on the annual basis. With the combination strategy we need to link with that of individual and team performance. As individual performance is concerned we need to pre define the factors that are considered for measurement in the appraisal process. Factors such as meeting customer needs, Initiative taken, Teamwork, Motivation and flexibility and as a team performance depends on the target that has been set and the efforts put in as a team. All members in the team should be given the same target because it would be easy for us to access and measure at the same time and overcome the difficulties if any. Since Chalmer company is a call centre based the main focus has to given in the quality rendered to the customer.
Advantages of using the blend Strategy i.e. Individual and Team (Combination) are as follows:
ü Both Individual and Team efforts are recognized for their contribution towards the organizational goals and the target set.
ü There is clarity in thought process which encourages greater flexibility in ways of working to increase efficiency and productivity
ü Enhances flexibility of working and encouraging multi tasking
ü Wide co-operation within the team as they are aware of the involvement to the total effort of the organization.
In addition to this short term incentives scheme can be given on the monthly basis. In order to ensure that the incentives are worthwhile minimum required standards are met and more over the incentives should always be self liquidating apart from the profits that is been by the organization. Create opportunities where both individual and team can win. Ensure that the incentive scheme should be motivational by highlighting his performance on the notice boards, putting up pictures of those who are selected as winners, or through an e-mail congratulating the person or for the entire team in order to whip up the interest and enthusiasm levels.
Evidence: This strategy is been followed in HSBC and DataMonitor, ASDA
[Source 1: Janet Egan/ Bonus and Cash Incentives/ "http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/pay/incent/bonus-cash-incentives.htm?IsSrchRes=1"
Source 2: Amicus/ Derek Simpson/ April 2006/ http://www.amicustheunion.org/pdf/BonusSchemes.pdf]
- Performance Management Measures: As said, the main purpose of performance management is to get better results and create a better understand between management and staff. This is only possible when both management and staff ask themselves what they need to be able to do bigger and better things. Therefore any performance management scheme that is adopted in the organization has to be flexible, and follow the cycle process which is Plan, Act, Monitor and review. These are the four important stages of performance management. While designing it has to take the staff views into consideration. Transparency plays an imperative role. Organizations should use the techniques of aligning the performance parameters with the overall vision and mission of the company that is been set. Employee Performance is always linked with specific target given as an individual or as a team, and so it has got a direct impact with that of pay, bonus and other incentives.
Managers should try and involve people while taking decision, setting up of targets. There has to be relatively relaxed approach towards targets. Employee involvement mechanisms such as team briefings, staff suggestion schemes should be involved where in communication would flow in both the directions. In other words it would be a two way process. This gives an employee chance to present them, share best practices in terms of productivity, improve working conditions etc. It is our responsibility to create a platform for them to develop in all aspects. The best way to assess employees is through performance appraisal. It should be made sure that the employees would be measured on few parameters and should made sure that every employee of the organization has clear understanding about these parameters and transparency should be maintain while accessing employees performance. Parameters are in the form of call taken, and the quality of service provided to the customers. Managers should assess and give feedback on regular basis. By doing this employees would know where they stand and they can learn from the mistakes they have made earlier. The entire process of evaluation has to be documented which acts as evidence and any discrepancy can be always look into. Let managers and employee's follow the concept of expectancy theory of motivation where an Effort would lead to a performance and that performance would again lead to a reward, reward with that of recognition and self - satisfaction.
Efforts → Performance → Reward → Recognition and Self - Satisfaction
Make employees feel that the organization is there for them. Recognize the efforts of the employees. This can be in the form of reward. A reward need not be in the form of cash, it can be a gift voucher, a discount coupon, or can be in the form or prizes. Once this is done every individual would strive to achieve their targets keeping in view about the quality that they have to deliver and company's vision. All this is possible when there is cordial and mutual understanding.
Feed back and One to One sessions: There should always be a room for continuous improvement. Feedback meetings with the employees, a formal review or a one to one session would enable employees to understand the actual crunch of the business, their progress and the area of development; all this is possible with the management support and their accessibility.
Evidence: British Telecommunications, Rose and Wright, have been following this approach and have indicated positive results with greater job satisfaction and willingness to get more involved
[Source: IDS 2001, IRS 2004/ http://www.cwu.org/uploads/documents/callcentresbest.doc]
- 360 Degree Feedback: Company can introduce the concept of 360 degree feedback which most of the fortune 500 companies are using in order to measure performance in their appraisal system. Feed back is taken not only from his peers but their team colleagues and internal and external customers. This is used as part of self development and provide the feedback during one to one session [Source: CIPD]
For example Nokia has implemented 360 degree feedback and has tasted good amount of success. It has used various measures and gauging different performance indicators of each employee
[Source: Author: Verena Veneeva/ published: 10th July 2006/ "http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/testing-the-effectiveness-of-performance-appraisals-40438.html"]
- Retention Bonus: Higher attrition rates have forced companies to use some innovative strategies to retain employees. It is one of the tool which helps to defer the decision of the staff to leave. This would help to convenience individuals to stay for longer period in order to complete projects. Retention bonus is becoming more common in the corporate world. So therefore company can try in using the retention policy which could again reduce the attrition rate to the greater extent.
[Source: IES/ Stephen Bevan/ Linda Barber/ Dilys Robinson]
- Recruitment and Pay Increase: There is a clear dissatisfaction with regards to the basic rate pay. According to one of the survey report the average pay for the call centre operative ranges from £14,820 and the maximum is £16,000, currently chalmers is paying around £14,000. Therefore the company has to increase at least to £14,820 which would be as per the market standards in comparison with that of other competitors. So there is a certainty of cost factor involved in it but we need to keep in mind that by increasing the pay at least we would retain some percentage of staff. This would reduce the attrition level. An experience employee plays a major role in the success and failure of an organization, no organization will be hoping to lose its experienced staff.
While the cost of bringing the new staff is a costly affair because the new staff will have to firstly understand the course of action of the business, the composition and the business knowledge, in addition to this the new staff would entail greater supervision and training. It is time consuming process. It is said that the total recruitment cost would be 4 to 5 times. According to the research study conceded out the average recruitment cost would be £30,000 to £50,000 which includes the amount spent on behalf of placing the advertisement in the local news paper, placement agencies, local job centres, jobsites and other databases.
The main aim of the organization is to recruit right people at right place. Because choosing the right person for a job can have a tremendous positive effect on productivity and customer satisfaction. Choosing a wrong person can result in sluggish operation and can lose customers.
Consequently it is recommended that initially the company should strive and retain their employee which is a cost effective technique. By increasing the pay, bonus, incentives and other friendly policies which not only helps the older staff to get motivated but at the same time attracts the new staff
[Source: Online recruitment/ Issue: 119/ Dated: 15/09/2005/ http://www.onrec.com/content2/news.asp?ID=9012
Formulae that can be calculated for Recruitment:
Ø Annual Recruitment cost =Total Consultant fees + Cost of Portals + Cost of Advertisement + Cost of Referrals
Ø Average cost of Recruitment: Total Money Spent on Recruitment for the Period (Month/ Year) / Total Number of Employees hired in that Period
- Bonus Scheme: The organization should try to increase its bonus contribution as this motivates employees to execute more and give their preeminent services. This will increase the cost for the organization but in return fetches profits as employees strive to achieve more to take benefit of the high bonus scheme. In addition to that, distributing bonus on the annual basis would not be a dear method instead of quarterly basis. This would save lot of time, depending on the profits earned by the organization can be uniformly scattered .Company should not think bonus and incentives as a cost but rather a tool to motivate, attract and retain employees. Always the goals of the organization should be future oriented.
A Recognition scheme can help organization create and structure that captures the imagination of employees and encourages them to take extra yard. Companies often over look recognition schemes. It represents a low cost, high value way of recognizing and reinforcing desired behaviours. Recognition schemes have been proven to be high valued by employees. Such schemes can work best when there is holistic approach. Any form of recognition such as long service awards, staff suggestion scheme awards, can be combined with other types of recognition to form a rational approach with greater employee satisfaction.
[Source: Strategic reward solutions/ Bonus and Incentive plans/ "http://www.strategicrewardsolutions.com/bonusincentiveplans.html]
Every organization has a reward management strategy which should be carefully planned out. Whilst designing such a scheme the organization should try to match with the best in the industry or at least should try to match the industry standards. This will enable to avoid any difficulties with the employees and the organization will be able to deal with attrition levels efficiently. A focus on emotional well being among staff is important to motivate which would help in reaching out business objectives. Lack of employee motivation would lead to high turnover rates. For any reward scheme to achieve its objective it is important that both the line managers and employers understand the relationship between performance, and how it is measured.
It is clear that both management and employees should get on upon employee involvement schemes that will be best supported by inherent organizational success factors, in an atmosphere of trust and faith, to achieve an optimal level of performance-involvement which meets both needs in achieving organizational objectives. Management should give a considerable amount of opportunity to the employees to provide their views and also consider them while making decisions. Employees should realize the importance of a decision and also should be able to understand the magnitude of a decision on the organization and act accordingly
Therefore the management should focus on job design, performance measures and appropriate training, and policies where in there is high level of employee involvement. Such policies will not only improve employee well being and would have positive impact on productivity and the business objective that the company would be striving for.
- Employee Reward Management and Practice - Michael Armstrong - 2nd Edition- Kogan page
- Cases in Reward Management - John Stredwick
- Employee Involvement and Participation - Jeff Hyman and Bob Mason - Sage Publications
- Report by: IES HR Network/ Published by: Institute for employment studies/ "http://www.employment-studies.co.uk/pdflibrary/mp69.pdf" / Copy right: IES 2006
- http://www.cwu.org/uploads/documents/callcentresbest.doc", IDS 2001, and IRS 2004] Friendly policies, work life balance, Performance management measures
- Amicus/ Derek Simpson/ April 2006/ http://www.amicustheunion.org/pdf/BonusSchemes.pdf - A guide to Bonus schemes
- A Practical Guide to Retaining Key Employees - Stephen Bevan / Linda Barber/ Dilys Robinson
- Strategic reward solutions/ Bonus and Incentive plans/ "http://www.strategicrewardsolutions.com/bonusincentiveplans.html
- ACAS/ Incentive schemes for groups/ "http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=736"
- Philip Thornton/ Economies Development/ Tuesday 21st October 2003/ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/call-centres-push-up-pay-rates-in-drive-to-lure-recruits-584162.html / Research on Salary rates in call centres ; Current scenario of the call centre Industry
- Author: Verena Veneeva/ published: 10th July 2006/ "http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/testing-the-effectiveness-of-performance-appraisals-40438.html - An Article for 360 Degree Feedback process.
- Using incentives, prizes and awards in call centres/ http://www.hotlines.co.uk/motivation/incentives.html
- Overall cost of recruitment/ "http://www.officelocal.co.uk/overall-cost-of-recruitment.php"
ü Written by: Janet Egan/ "http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/pay/incent/bonus-cash-incentives.htm?IsSrchRes=1" - Bonus and Cash Incentives/ Copy right- CIPD 2009
ü Written by: CIPD staff/ "http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/pay/general/payrewrdovw.htm"/ Pay and Reward system/ Copy right- CIPD 2009
ü Written by: Mike Cannell/ copy right: CIPD 2009/ "http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/perfmangmt/general/perfman.htm"
- Xpert HR:
ü IRS Employment Review/ Issue: 839/ Date: 20/01/2006/ Publisher: IRS/ http://www.xperthr.co.uk/article/60684/recruitment-and-retention-in-call-and-contact-centres.aspx/ Recruitment and Retention policies
ü IRS Employment Review/ Issue: 860/ Date: 01/12/2006/ Publisher: IRS/ "http://www.xperthr.co.uk/article/71824/call-centre-pay-and-benefits-survey-2006.aspx"/ Call Centre pay and benefits survey - 2006
ü IRS Employment Review/ Issue: 860/ Date: 01/12/2006/ Publisher: IRS002F/" http://www.xperthr.co.uk/article/35353/call-centre-rewards-and-bonuses,-2003.aspx?searchwords=performance+management+measures+in+call+centres"/ Call centre rewards and bonuses - 2003